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  • Open access
  • 18 Reads
Emerging from Presumed Extinction: Updated Distribution and Conservation of Uromenus annae (Targioni-Tozzetti 1881), Endemism of Sardinia (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae)

Uromenus annae was listed as NT (Near Threatened) by IUCN in the Red List of European Orthoptera, possibly extinct as no individuals were collected in the last half century. The finding of a living couple in 2018 renewed the attention on the species, resulting in the male calling song description and further scattered collections. The newest results instigated local institutions to pursue field research with the aim of understanding the distribution and ecology of the species, outline current threats and propose conservation actions.

  • Open access
  • 68 Reads
Benthyc Insect Larvae of Small Rivers in Central Russia (Synecological Aspects)

Many small rivers flow in the central and northern parts of the Meshora Lowland. Their peculiarity is bog and snow water supply, high anthropogenic load and various overgrowing of the banks. The bottom ecosystems of these rivers include the larval stages of various insect species. The most common are representatives of the orders Diptera, Megaloptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hemiptera.

The study of benthic communities showed their significant difference in insect representation and biodiversity. The communities richest in species are peculiar to rivers and riverbed sections where the lowest ratio of dissolved organic matter to suspended matter was observed. At the same time, such communities are found not along the entire length of the river, but in spots.

The collected data on various sections of the four rivers represent data on the synecology of insects with rheophilic freshwater larval stages, which make it possible to consider the benthic ecosystems of small Meshora rivers as the interaction of species and their place in detrital food webs, as well as their relationship with the areas of growth of aquatic macrophytes. The investigated bottom lotic ecosystems, including insects, can be described using the patch dynamics concept, but not the river continuum concept. This is apparently due to three factors:

1) Binding to thickets of macrophytes of food webs.

2) Separation of environments in the ontogeny of insects. The larvae develop in water, and the adults live in the ground-air environment, where the reproduction process takes place. Oviposition in water takes place in convenient places with characteristic vegetation.

3) There is an annual restoration of ecosystems from winter shelters or refugium. That allows insects to survive the winter freezing of the river, the lack of dissolved oxygen.

  • Open access
  • 66 Reads
First Insights on the Diversity of Edible Grasshoppers in South Africa by DNA Barcoding of Ethnospecies

Orthoptera are widely consumed in South Africa, but the actual diversity of species is largely undocumented. We used DNA barcoding to catalog seven ethnospecies of edible grasshoppers (Malefiswane, Tatakgope, Makahlodi, Mamaroping, Makihla, Makwitla, Tlatlawele) and edible Vlei grasshoppers. Genetic clustering and genetic divergences allowed for the identification of 14 genetic groups in Acrididae and one in Pyrgomorphidae. Species identification by sequence queries against BOLD Systems and GenBank was inconclusive in most cases. We confirm that DNA barcoding in Orthoptera is challenging due to NUMTs. Species diversity of edible grasshoppers in South Africa is high, and some may be suitable for mass-rearing.

  • Open access
  • 59 Reads
Mitogenomics and Phylogeny of Seven African Saturniidae (Lepidoptera)

African Saturniidae (Lepidoptera) have not been included in recent mitochondrial phylogenies except for two edible species of economic importance in Southern Africa. To bridge this gap, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes for seven additional species (Epiphora bauhinia, Heniocha dyops, Gonimbrasia tyrrhea, Bunaea alcinoe, Nudaurelia cytherea, Vegetia ducalis and Vegetia grimmia), including the first representatives of the tribe Micragonini for comparative mitogenomics and phylogenetic reconstruction of the family. The mitochondrial gene content and organization were conserved across Saturniidae. After testing for different datasets of genes, the only tree able to successfully recover the four tribes as monophyletic clades included the two rRNA gene sequences (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) in addition to the full complement of 13 protein-coding genes.

  • Open access
  • 49 Reads
Pros and Cons of Climate Change for Forest Phytophagous Insects

The aim of the research was to assess a possible reaction of forest phytophages with different types of seasonal development on climate change. The patterns of seasonal development for foliage browsing insects and possible changes with temperature increase were analyzed considering hibernating stage and the presence of summer diapause. Analysis shows that forest phytophagous insects can adapt to climate change by the acceleration of development, expanding the range of host plants, changing the location of individual stages, or spreading the range. Species that are monophages throughout their current range will remain monophages. The survival rate and harmfulness of phytophagous insects will depend on their synchronicity with the appearance of foliage and entomophages. The harmfulness of phytophages will increase with an increase in their voltinism and with an increase in the vulnerability of trees under conditions of aridity and anthropogenic pressure and will decrease as a result of a decrease in the size of insects and their fertility during rapid development. Hibernation of individuals at stages that are not adapted to new combinations of temperature and photoperiod can also be negative results of climate change.

  • Open access
  • 73 Reads
Ceratitis captata (Wied.) Thoracic Conformation Reared in Cashew Apple (Acardium occidentale)

Among all fruit flies species, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pest for fruits, infesting a wide range of hosts. However, there is not deep knowledge about its potential infestation and development in fruits from Caatinga (semi-arid) biome in Brazil. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the thoracic conformation of C. capitata adults (males and females) from two strains reared in cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.). For this, it was taken measurements from the thorax of 25 couples fed on different diets: (a) strain V8 in cashew apple; (b) wild strain in cashew apple; and (c) V8 in artificial diet. Since the damages are not normaly distributed, it was applied tests of medians differences to compare the results based on a 5% level of significance. For the adults from the two strains reared on cashew apples, the medians of thoracic measurements are higher than the males. In the adults from artificial diet, the median of the males was considerably higher than the females. Among the males, it was possible to verify the proximity of the thoracic measurements medians from the observations of the two strains reared in cashew apples. Such two strains showed lower measurements when compared to the diet reared ones. The V8 strain presented higher thoracic conformation to the tested food, showing to be more adapted to the cashew apple.

  • Open access
  • 126 Reads

Generic Model to Predict the Outbreak of Insects in European Forests

Insect pests are one of the major threats to forests. Although invasive species cause more and more impacts, native species could also become real pests. The population dynamics of insects relies on several factors, going from weather to stand conditions. Due to global change, insects could face conditions they have never encountered, leading to unusual population outbreaks. Forest managers need to consider these possible emergent pests. However, the biology of these new pests is generally poorly described and predicting insect outbreaks is thus very challenging. In this context, we have developed a generic model of emergence to describe local outbreaks. This model describes the probability of occurrence of an outbreak at a given time and at a given area, based on several conditions (34 variables). It has been built and parametrized on different orders of European forest pests. This parametrization allows obtaining species profiles that can be used as a baseline to make predictions even if poor data are available on the pest, to ensure the genericity of the model. This is to our knowledge the very first generic outbreak model that has been developed so far. This model was coded in R and a user-friendly version using a shiny app was developed. In this work, we are going to present the model and its validation.

  • Open access
  • 31 Reads

Monitoring of Native and Introduced Ambrosia Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) With Two Different Lures

Two lures (REDBAY & AMBRO) developed for the monitoring of an introduced/invasive species (Redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus)) were tested in semi-natural forests in Hungary. Three sites were selected, and one-one traps with the different lures each were set up and controlled regularly. Altogether more than 12 thousand ambrosia beetles were caught. The lure blend AMBRO proved to be more effective (approx. 11,000 beetles) in compare to REDBAY blend (approx. 1,000) beetles. Both native and introduced ambrosia beetles were captured, however, the invasive Xylosandrus germanus was the most dominant species (approx. 10,600 specimens). Other ambrosia beetles of the genus Trypodendron, Xyleborus, Xylosandrus, Xyleborinus and Platypus were also present.

  • Open access
  • 69 Reads
Morphology of Immature Stages of Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera, Syrphidae) a Predator of Aphids Pest
Published: 30 June 2021 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Entomology session Posters

The hoverfly Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedemann, 1830) is widely distributed in the Palearctic, and their larvae prey on soft insect pests that cause significant agricultural losses. The correct morphological diagnosis of immature stages of natural enemies is especially important in biological control management. Little is known about the morphology of the immature stages of this predator, being only known the L3 stage using a light microscope, but lacking a complete study of the chaetotaxy. Here is provided a detailed and complete characterization of the three early stages of S. rueppellii using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with a special focus on the number, disposition, and functional morphology of the sensilla of the three immature stages. For the first time is described in detail the morphology of the Posterior Respiratory Process (PRP), as well as the chorionic sculpturing of the egg surface. An Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) was performed to determine the composition of the principal components.

  • Open access
  • 66 Reads
Distinguish Behavioral Characteristics of Diasemiopsis Ramburial (Duponchel, 1833) and Nomophila noctuella (Denis & Schiffermuller, 1775) (Lepidop-Tera: Crambidae) on Azolla spp.

It is generally accepted that biological invasions have major ecosystem impacts and create new types of interaction between local and exotic species. Azolla spp. invasion caused different interactions between local and exotic species in the northern region of Iran. Diasemiopsis ramburialis and Nomophila noctuella are two spilomelinae moths found feeding on Azolla these regions. They have overlapping feeding periods on Azolla spp. and immature stages would be confused easily. N. noctuella was recorded as a polyphagous and pest species while D. ramburialis had no other reported host plant beside Azolla spp., therefore, distinguishing these species from each other was so important for anyone who was working on Azolla spp. management in these Areas. Behavioral characteristics of both species were studied for five years in the laboratory and natural habitats. The results indicated that despite the similarities between immature stages, there are some distinctive behavioral characteristics that would be useful for primary identification of each species in the field. D. ramburialis larvae constructed well-shaped and strong shelters, and produced more silken webs and remained in the shelter most of the time. In addition pupation occurs near the feeding site in this species. N. noctuella larvae have wandering behavior and prefer to move in margins, therefore in this species, pupation occurs far from the feeding site . These results indicated that D. ramburialis is more adapted to feed Azolla spp. and Azolla spp. are main host plants for this species while N. noctuella chose them randomly.